How to spell ?!?

Dr. Andy Cowell (this guy) who wrote the Arapaho Language grammar just spent an hour trying to teach me to spell!  Here are my notes.  They’re really linguisticky and hard to understand, but if you find this interesting and want to know more, email me ( and we can reword this in a way that begins to actually make sense.

x, k, w will be followed by u, not i;  can only have ku, xu, wu; x or k can be o_e but w can’t be followed by e (w becomes b before e)

x, k, w don’t allow e after them (e turns k into c, w into b, x into s; e forces consonant mutation; never going to have sequence of xe, ke, we)
s, b, c can never be followed by a u (it would be an i)
i turns into a u after an o (even after k, x, w, h, or ‘) but that mutation is blocked by s, 3, t, y, n, b, c (all those things always have i after)
h and ‘ are unique because they can be followed by either i or u
nu never happens (with the sole exception of nuhu’)
o can come after any consonant
you never get a consonant right before H
u or i often disappear (become silent) if they don’t have pitch accent
u can become o after glottal stop or h (when not accented)
i can become e after glottal stop or h (when not accented)
can’t have two syllables (Consonant Vowel sequences) in a row with accent — in one word
accent shift occurs in single to plural: singular ceebIseenoo plural ceebisEEno’
SO the accent on any singular affirmative AI verb root-A-a-noo; for plural accent is penultimate syllable
all direction of action markers (like the -e3en on biixoo3e3en, from me to you) force accent on a specific syllable in relation to the end of the word (SO that’s a set of rules to memorize but they’re super useful to know because that very consistently determines accent spelling)

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